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Vacheron Constantin – Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers: a new window on the world and on history, opened by talented Master artisans

Vacheron Constantin – Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers: a new window on the world and on history, opened by talented Master artisans

  • A series of three ten-piece limited editions, paying homage to the Portuguese sailors Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral.
  • Miniature masterpieces, with Grand Feu enamel dials inspired by a map from the 1519 Miller Atlas, of which a reproduction is kept in the Portuguese Maritime Museum (Museu de Marinha – Lisbon).
  • The Manufacture 1120 AT movement powering an off-centre display of the hours and minutes, leaving ample space to express the Maison’s artistic crafts.

Geneva, 2021 – They evoke a time when the world had yet to be discovered. They retrace the famous epic journeys of the great 15th century explorers who braved the seas and oceans to discover distant horizons. Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama, Pedro Álvares Cabral: Vacheron Constantin celebrates their spirit of adventure through a new series of three ten-piece limited editions, the Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers. Crafted in Grand Feu enamel, each dial depicts selected portions of a 1519 map from the Miller Atlas. These three masterpieces of miniaturisation and expertise are driven by the Manufacture 1120 AT movement. These new models, presented at Watches & Wonders 2021, are part of the theme of the Maison for 2021 : entitled Classic with a Twist, it highlights Vacheron Constantin’s creative energy, guided by an identity that celebrates a heritage and dares to deliver the unexpected.

The spirit of travel, exploration and discovery of arts and cultures is an integral part of Vacheron Constantin’s history. A history rooted in the origins of the Manufacture, in an age when François Constantin did not hesitate to travel the world to open new markets and to fly the banner of the Maison high and wide, wherever possible. This openness to the world still pervades the philosophy of the Manufacture, which symbolically celebrates the spirit of adventure through a new journey – on this occasion a voyage through time – in memory of the great 15th century Portuguese explorers.

With this third opus in the Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers collection, which completes two series presented in 2004 and 2008, Vacheron Constantin ventures into one of history’s most exhilarating chapters. In the wake of models dedicated to Magellan, Zheng Hé, Christopher Columbus and Marco Polo, which proved a great success with collectors, comes the turn of Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral to be honoured through extraordinary miniature compositions enhanced by talented master artisans. They bear witness to the noble touch and impressive creativity of the enamellers whose mastery of Grand Feu enamel once again broadens the horizons of the Métiers d’Art collection. A rare skill extending an invitation to travel while firing the imagination.

Masterful miniature Grand Feu enamel expressions of patience and meticulous care
Inspired by a map from the 1519 Miller Atlas, of which a painted reproduction is kept in the Portuguese Maritime Museum (Museu de Marinha – Lisbon), each dial shows a part of the world and the maritime routes respectively taken by the three explorers. In order to replicate the finely nuanced colours and the extreme delicacy of the motifs, the Maison opted for the art of enamelling. The result is three dials in Grand Feu enamel, masterpieces of patience and precision that require a full month’s work and 11 firings in the kiln at a temperature of between 800 and 900°C. These are all stages in which mastering fire proves crucial, since a few seconds too many can jeopardise several weeks of work.

The art of enamelling is a rare skill, a subtle blend of experience and sensitivity demonstrated in each move made by the artisan. Composed of crystal and metal oxides, enamels come in the form of small blocks of colour that the enameller first crushes into an extremely fine powder. The latter is then worked to create a substance similar to paint, which is applied in successive touches, enabling the enameller to represent motifs with incredible finesse and nuance. After coating the dial with the background colour, the enameller tackles the dial motifs, starting with the outlines of the continents, which are here enhanced with gold-coloured enamel powder. The decorative elements of this elegant composition – including the ships, fauna, flora and wind rose – are also produced using the delicate technique of miniature painting, thus serving to reproduce a host of details and subtly graded shades, obtained after numerous tests by the enameller. Each addition of colour requires another firing, since enamel is a mineral material that must be melted down in order to display its famous brilliance and intense depth.

Calibre 1120 AT with satellite hours
So as to give free rein to the enameller’s expertise, the three Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers models are powered by in-house Calibre 1120 AT. This movement is distinguished first and foremost by its 5.45 mm thinness enabling the 41 mm-diameter 4N pink gold case to maintain a trim 11.68 mm overall thickness guaranteeing an elegant appearance on the wrist.

The mechanism is also distinguished by its singular construction and its original time display mode enabling the wearer to travel visually through the dial as the hours pass by. Concealed beneath the upper part of the dial, the hours wheel is equipped with three arms each bearing four hours numerals, driven in turn by a cam shaped like the Manufacture’s Maltese cross inspired emblem. This ingenious satellite module enables the hours to sweep across the dial from top to bottom, traversing the fixed minutes circle positioned along a 120° arc. The hours numerals thus travel through the dial and their position gives an indication of the minutes replacing a traditional hand-type display.

Revealed through the transparent caseback, the movement decorations – notably including the 22-carat pink gold oscillating weight adorned with a wind rose – are entirely worthy of its technical nature.

Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers –Bartolomeu Dias
If his crews had not convinced him to give up on continuing the journey beyond the southern tip of Africa, perhaps Bartolomeu Dias (1450 – 1500) would have been the first to reach the Indies. The illustrious Portuguese explorer made history in a different way, by discovering the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, paving the way for future expeditions. Bartolomeu Dias was also a member of the crew of Vasco da Gama, who led his fleet to Indies between 1497 and 1498.

The route taken by Bartolomeu Dias’ ships in 1488 is represented by a red line on the Grand Feu enamel dial, enhanced by numerous incredibly refined details. With the help of a magnifying glass, a close look will reveal the silhouette of the men composing the explorer’s crew on board the two ships sailing west of Africa; or the palette of shades used by the enameller to precisely reproduce the landscapes, fauna and flora as they are represented on the map of the Miller Atlas.

Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers – Vasco da Gama
The long journey that took him from Portugal to the coasts of India was one of the most important 15th century discoveries. The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469 –1524), who left his native country in 1497, was the first to travel from Europe and Asia by sea, following an epic and often hellish journey across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. After circumnavigating the southern tip of Africa, his fleet of four ships sailed along the coast as far as Kenya before embarking on a crossing towards the Indies, which he reached in 1498.

The sea route taken by its crew is finely traced in red enamel on the dial, each detail of which is a very faithful reproduction of the map appearing in the Miller Atlas. The gaze will naturally be drawn to a ship from Vasco da Gama’s fleet in the dial centre, sails billowing on a stormy sea; or to the circumference of the wind rose and the continents enhanced with gold-coloured enamel powder.

Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers – Pedro Álvares Cabral
It is to this Portuguese aristocrat and explorer that we owe the discovery of Brazil in 1500. Pedro Álvares Cabral (1467 – 1520) was commissioned by King Manuel I of Portugal to travel to the Indies to continue the work of Vasco da Gama, but he took a very different route from his contemporary. Rather than sailing along the African coast to the southern tip of Africa, the fleet led by Pedro Álvares Cabral headed west, until they discovered a new world, Brazil.

This route is depicted by a red enamel line standing out against a beige enamel background punctuated by extremely faithful representations of the elements present on the map of the Miller Atlas. In the centre of the dial, a ship from Pedro Álvares Cabral’s fleet, sails buffeted by the wind, proudly cleaves the sea in an extraordinarily lifelike manner. The accuracy of the craftsmanship is also expressed in the shimmering feathers of the birds as well as in the depiction of human figures on the South American continent.

Classic with a Twist

Vacheron Constantin’s creativity has always remained closely attuned to its time while evoking its memories. This byword for elegance, adopted by each watchmaker, artisan and designer throughout the years and centuries, celebrates heritage and dares to explore the unexpected. Poised at the intersection between technical virtuosity and aesthetic refinement, the enduring allure of Vacheron Constantin timepieces makes its way unscathed through passing eras. Because timelessness cannot be achieved merely by complying with the canons of traditional watchmaking, each creation is tinged with a touch of boldness revealed in the smallest details. Special displays, offset indications, specific chamfering of all components, hand-crafted finishing and the complexity of a mechanism are just a few examples of this expertise. The result is a very personal field of expression where technique and style converge in a subtle harmony between the conventional and the atypical.



Vacheron Constantin explores an exhilarating page of history with the Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers’ collection, available in a series of three ten-piece limited editions. In the wake of Magellan, Zheng Hé, Christopher Columbus and Marco Polo, to whom the Manufacture had already paid tribute in 2004 and 2008, comes the turn of Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral to be honoured through extraordinary compositions enhanced by talented master artisans. To celebrate the discoveries made by these three 15th century Portuguese navigators, the Maison has opted for Grand Feu enamel and the technique of miniature painting. Masterpieces of patience and meticulous care, each of the three dials represents part of a map from the 1519 Miller Atlas, of which a reproduction is kept in Portuguese Maritime Museum (Museu de Marinha – Lisbon). These extraordinarily precise compositions are framed by a slim 18K 4N pink gold case measuring 41 mm in diameter. In order to provide abundant expressive scope for the enameller, these models beat to the rhythm of the 1120 AT self-winding movement, driving an off-centre time display thanks to a satellite hours module.



Métiers d’Art Tribute to great explorers

7500U/000R-B687: Bartolomeu Dias
7500U/000R-B688: Vasco da Gama
7500U/000R-B689: Pedro Álvares Cabral

1120 AT
Developed and crafted by Vacheron Constantin
Mechanical, self-winding
22K gold oscillating weight with tapisserie decor
32.80 mm (12 ½ ‘’’ diameter), 5.45 mm thick
Approximately 40 hours of power reserve
2.75 Hz (19,800 vibrations per hour)
205 components
36 jewels
Hallmark of Geneva certified timepiece

Dragging hours, minutes

18K 4N pink gold
41mm diameter, 11.68 mm thick
Transparent sapphire crystal caseback
Water-resistance tested at a pressure of 3 bar (approx. 30 meters)

18K gold, two-level dial, Grand Feu enamel
Enamelled hour-markers

Blue Mississippiensis alligator leather with alligator leather inner shell, hand-stitched, saddle-finish, large square scales

18K 4N pink gold folding clasp
Polished half Maltese cross-shaped
Limited series of ten timepieces per reference.
Models available exclusively through the Vacheron Constantin Boutiques.

Gordon Murray Automotive reveals the T.50s
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Gordon Murray Automotive reveals the T.50s Niki Lauda with the mission to deliver an on-track experience like no other car in history

Gordon Murray Automotive reveals the T.50s Niki Lauda with the mission to deliver an on-track experience like no other car in history

• All-new T.50s Niki Lauda revealed: designed and engineered to offer “an on track experience like no other car to date.”
• Production limited to just 25 cars
• Designed, engineered and developed in parallel with the groundbreaking T.50 supercar
• Hundreds of components changed to optimise the car for track use
• Engineered without compromise, weighing just 852kg
• Powered by a 725bhp naturally aspirated V12 engine which weighs only 162kg and revs to 12,100rpm
• Named after legendary three-time F1 world champion and Gordon Murray’s former Brabham teammate, Niki Lauda
• Car unveiled on Niki Lauda’s birthday
• Offers a unique and highly personalised ownership experience, witheach chassis named after one of Gordon Murray’s grand prix victories Gordon Murray Automotive has unveiled its T.50s Niki Lauda track-focused supercar for the first time. Developed in parallel with the T.50, the most driver-centric supercar ever built, the T.50s Niki Lauda has been conceived, designed and engineered to offer the ultimate on-track driving experience. Like the T.50, the T.50s Niki Lauda has been designed and engineered without compromise but with an even more extreme specification. It weighs just 852kg and will be powered by a substantially redesigned version of the T.50’s Cosworth-engineered 3.9-litre V12, producing 725bhp, revving to 12,100rpm and going through a newlydesigned Xtrac six-speed paddle-shift gearbox. Advanced aerodynamics, aided by a 400mm rear-mounted fan, will produce up to 1500kg of downforce for optimum track

Just 25 T.50s Niki Lauda’s will be made, costing £3.1m (before taxes). Production will start in January 2023 at Gordon Murray Automotive’s Manufacturing centre in Dunsfold, Surrey, UK, after the run of 100 T.50 supercars is completed. Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “The T.50 is the ultimate road-going supercar, but I always dreamed of taking it one step further… to build a version that will deliver an ontrack driving experience like no other car in history. “When we created the McLaren F1 GTR it was developed from the F1 road car. From its inception the T.50s Niki Lauda, though, was designed in parallel with the T.50. For the T.50 our target was clear, to make the best driver’s car for the road. With the T.50s Niki Lauda it was equally clear, to make it the best driver’s car for the track. Putting it another way, we asked ourselves what would be the coolest thing to drive on track and create a track driving experience like no other car in history?”

“We had no interest in achieving the ultimate lap time or creating an over-tyred and over-downforced spaceship at the expense of driver involvement, because ultimately you have to possess an F1 driver level of skill and fitness to get the best out of them.” “Instead, I laid out some parameters to create the ultimate driver’s car and experience on track: a central driving position, a V12 just behind your ear revving to over 12,000rpm, producing over 700 horsepower and with an even faster response time than Vthe T.50, downforce limited to 1500kg and a weight of under 900kg. Plus the ability to turn up at any track, make a few basic checks and have fun, without the need for an
entire support crew.

“In my view it doesn’t get better than that and is driving in its purest form. The T.50s Niki Lauda will give a visceral connection between driver, car and track, the like of which has
not been experienced to date. “I can just imagine going round your favourite circuit, sitting in the middle with that unsilenced V12 screaming just behind you – the driving experience will be something special. With a power to weight ratio better than that of a naturally aspirated LMP1 car, it is also going to be searingly quick and, with such a low weight, will change direction like
an F1 car.

“With the direction of travel of the automotive industry, it’s hard to imagine that there will ever be another car quite like this. Especially not one with a central driving position, a
high revving naturally aspirated V12 engine and that is so lightweight. I believe it will go on to define its era.”

Gordon Murray and the team have worked hard on the T.50s body design to achieve their aerodynamic performance targets, whilst retaining the T.50’s balanced and classic

The dramatic aerodynamic features of the T.50s Niki Lauda instantly give away its performance potential. A striking central fin designed to enhance stability features a Niki
Lauda logo. At the rear, the distinctive 400mm fan from the T.50 is retained, accompanied by an even larger rear diffuser and a new delta wing. The rear grille features a T.50s badge and ‘Fan Car’ script.BThe aerodynamic elements continue at the front of the car. Barge boards are sculpted to improve airflow to the side ducts, which house the oil cooling systems for the engine and
transmission. A splitter and dive planes are also prominent and further reflect the car’s aero-influenced design. At the same time, the purity of the T.50 is not lost, creating a purposeful yet elegant look.

Owners will be able to individualise their T.50s through their choice of colours and liveries, so that no two cars will be alike. Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “The styling of the T.50s is completely aero driven, but still attractive. There’s not one body panel carried over from the T.50, but the road car has such a strong and classic shape that it still manages to shine through.”

Engine and transmission
The Cosworth-designed 3.9-litre V12 engine is a dramatically different version of the engine that powers the T.50. It is even more powerful and faster-revving too, delivering 711PS at 11,500rpm, on its way to a 12,100rpm rev-limit. At 178hp/litre, the specific power output of the T.50s Niki Lauda’s V12 exceeds that of the all-conquering Cosworth DFV Formula One engine. The power-to weight ratio of 835PS/tonne betters that of a naturally aspirated LMP1 car.

The T.50s Niki Lauda’s engine is fed by a newly-designed, roof-mounted, highperformance RAM induction airbox (which can increase maximum power to 725bhp). The maximum torque figure is 485Nm, produced at 9,000rpm. A newly-developed, bespoke, straight-through exhaust system also takes the engine sound to a new level. Right through the rev-range it promises to be one of the greatest and most characterful sounding cars ever made.

The state of the art V12 pushes the boundaries of engine design even further, with many new components. Changes include completely revised cylinder heads and camshafts,
plus a higher compression ratio of 15:1. Through meticulous attention to detail, this new iteration of the Cosworth GMA V12 weighs just 162kg, 16kg less than what was already the lightest road-going V12 engine ever. The weight-saving measures extend to the intake, exhaust and control systems, as well as the engine itself. All the valves are made from titanium, while there is no variable
valve timing due to the additional weight of the geartrain and electronic control system.

A simpler induction system features 12 throttle bodies on top of the engine, fed directly by the racing-style air box. The exhaust system does without catalytic converters, has
thinner Inconel walls and, with only track noise limits to meet, benefits from smaller silencers.

A bespoke Xtrac IGS (Instantaneous Gearshift) six-speed paddle shift gearbox is fitted, designed to fit the exacting packaging and weight demands of the T.50s. As part of Xtrac’s efforts to minimise weight wherever possible, even the gears are lighter, contributing to a 5kg total weight reduction. Both the gearbox and the clutch are electronically actuated. Ratios have been chosen to optimise on-track performance and driver enjoyment and engagement, delivering a top speed of approximately 200-210mph. A set of closer ratios optimised for shorter circuits will also be offered, allowing owners to make the most of all six gears via the steering column-mounted paddles. In this configuration, the T.50s Niki Lauda will reach around 170mph flat-out.

Chassis, body and suspension

The T.50s Niki Lauda is built around a specially developed, lightweight carbon fibre monocoque. Optimised for weight reduction and structural rigidity, it is constructed using advanced part-binding technology, with carbon fibre wrapped around a honeycomb aluminium core. This stiffness and strength also contributes to the T.50s’s exceptional occupant safety, with precisely engineered deformable areas. Passengers are further protected by an F1- style ‘passenger safety cell’. Exterior body panels, all unique to the T.50s, are also made from ultra-lightweight
carbon fibre. Windows and screens use glazing that has been further reduced in weight from the road car specification. For exceptional levels of confidence inspiring on-track dynamics, the T.50s Niki Lauda utilises the same forged aluminium front and rear double wishbone suspension system as the T.50. However, the springs, dampers and anti-roll bar have been respecified to optimise track performance, while the ride height has been lowered to 87mm at the front and 116mm at the rear.

As part of the Trackspeed package, the T.50s Niki Lauda’s chassis can be adjusted to find the ideal setup for its owner. Both the chassis settings and the aerodynamics are
fully adjustable.

The T.50s Niki Lauda retains the T.50’s rack and pinion steering, but with a revised steering ratio.

The Brembo carbon ceramic discs of the T.50 are carried over to the T.50s Niki Lauda (370mm x 34mm front/340mm x 34mm rear), with six-piston front callipers and fourpiston rear callipers. The braking system and aerodynamics combine to produce incredible deceleration of 3.5G. To ensure the brakes maintain their phenomenal performance throughout a track session, new ducting around each wheel is designed to improve brake cooling.

Wheels and tyres
The T.50s sits on unique and exceptionally light magnesium forged 18-inch wheels, weighing less than 6kg each, with Formula One-style lightweight wheel hubs and a centre lock attachment. The wheels are wrapped in Michelin slick tyres, measuring 250mm wide at the front (25/64 18”) and 300mm wide at the rear (30/68 18”). A wet option is also provided.


The T.50s Niki Lauda has completely new aero, which combines to create 1500kg of downforce. This includes a new 1,758mm-wide, rear-mounted delta wing, the design of which was inspired by the front wing on Murray’s 1983 Brabham BT52 Formula One car and is just as effective today as it was then. The front of the T.50s features a splitter with a central aerofoil section, which generates huge load figures to balance out those from the rear wing. The splitter’s central channel reduces the car’s sensitivity to pitch while allowing airflow under the car to continue to
drive the central diffuser section, keeping the efficiency of the entire aero package high.

Dive planes include horizontal elements paired with a vertical duct to manage wheel arch pressures and tyre wake, reducing drag and improving efficiency. A pair of NACA ducts have been perfectly positioned on the front clam shell in a region of high pressure and where the thin boundary layer is ideal for cooling the large front brakes. A central fin stretching from the top of the roof to the rear lip of the car has also been added for increased yaw stability. The large vertical face is presented to the airflow during high-speed cornering and helps counteract the momentum of the car towards the outside of the corner.

To further improve airflow and accommodate the central fin, the oil cooling systems for the engine and transmission are now located in side ducts. By placing these systems
lower in the car, this helps to optimise its centre of gravity.

With the powertrain coolers located directly downstream of the front wheels, barge boards have been added to manage the turbulent wake emanating from the front wheel
arches, ensuring a clean flow of air to the side ducts.

The T.50s Niki Lauda retains the same 400mm ground-effect fan as the T.50, but here it runs in a single High Downforce mode, spinning at 7000rpm. The T.50s also has much
simpler ducting, with a permanently open duct running down to the redesigned rear diffuser.

Like the chassis, the T.50s Niki Lauda’s aerodynamics can be adjusted to suit its owner’s preferences, adding or removing downforce as required. To balance the car’s aero, the front diffusers are adjustable, as is a slotted flap on the rear wing. The highspeed balance can be further honed through changes to the car’s ride height.
In the optimum configuration, when a particular race circuit demands it, up to 1500kg of downforce will be achievable. However, the car’s aerodynamics have been carefully
designed to ensure that the T.50s Niki Lauda’s performance remains accessible and exploitable regardless of the driver’s experience.
Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “When we first ran the CFD we were already ahead of our downforce target. At one point we were achieving 1,900kg of downforce, but we
backed it off to 1,500kg to make the car more manageable for the owners.”

The dihedral doors lift to reveal a race-car oriented cabin. The T.50s Niki Lauda retains the driver-focused central seating position of the T.50, giving the driver an unhindered view of the track ahead and allowing perfect placement. The driver sits on a full racing carbon fibre seat with fore and aft adjustment, and is secured with a six-point harness. The T.50s is a two-seater with a fixed passenger seat to the left of the driver, complete with a four-point harness. In place of the seat on the right is a fire extinguisher system. Occupying the space formerly taken up by the passenger footwell is a vertical switch gear panel similar to that found on the legendary McLaren F1 GTR. Should the owner wish, the car can be ordered without a passenger seat to save further weight and create an even more focused feel.

The rectangular carbon fibre steering wheel is a lesson in simplicity, featuring only the key controls that the driver needs. This includes buttons for the traction and launch control, as well as the car-to-pit/driver-to-passenger radio and to select neutral. The slim, uncluttered design is influenced by Murray’s racing experience. Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “I used to make my drivers take their watches off, partly for weight, but also because it adds to the steering inertia. Big wheels with lots of switches are quite heavy from a steering inertia point of view, so for the T.50s I wanted
to keep the wheel small, clean and simple.” To avoid unnecessary distractions, the T.50s features a single digital screen. This displays essential vehicle and engine data, as well as aero info, the gearchange indicator, telemetry, lap time, tyre pressures/temperatures, G-forces and a camera video feed.

Driver comfort was another priority for Murray when designing the T.50s, which maintains the same spaciousness and visibility as the road car. This makes the T.50s Niki Lauda a uniquely usable track car, despite its incredible performance. Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “Engineering the ultimate track-focused supercar has to start with the driver. It was essential that we retained a central driving position, with every control arranged within easy reach and with no distractions or unnecessary information on display. And in my opinion, you don’t get a better view than that from the central driving position and one which allows you to place the T.50s Niki Lauda with millimetre precision on any circuit. You are left with nothing to take away the purepleasure of pushing this car as hard as you can on your favourite race circuit.”

“Racing drivers are often uncomfortable, they just put up with it because they’re trying to win a race. The McLaren F1 had a really nice driving position and good visibility and I think that helped the guys at Le Mans because it made it more comfortable for them. In the T.50s, the driving position ergonomically is just about as good as it gets. This is a
car you can drive all day.”

Named after a racing legend
The T.50s Niki Lauda has been named after legendary three-time Formula One World Champion, Niki Lauda. Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “The T.50s is named in honour of Niki to commemorate his famous win with the Brabham BT46B fan car in the 1978 Swedish Grand Prix. Niki was a great racing driver and he was also a good friend and it is absolutely fitting that
we are launching the T.50s Niki Lauda on his birthday. Niki would have appreciated the innovation and engineering detail in our car.”

The Lauda family said: “We are proud that Gordon Murray Automotive has named its new car after Niki. He would have been extremely honoured to have been associated with a car designed and engineered by Gordon, with whom he had such a long association and friendship.” Each chassis to be named after one of Gordon Murray’s F1 race wins Additionally, each of the 25 cars’ chassis will be individually named after one of Gordon Murray’s grand prix wins on different circuits. The first car will be designated Kyalami 1974 and further cars will be named after the 24 subsequent wins, in chronological order. Each car will also come with a specially commissioned book about the race that it is named after, with Murray’s view and memories of the victory.

Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “Each car will carry its own individual story, being forever linked to the grand prix victory it is named after. The T.50s is inspired by my love of motorsport, so it seemed entirely fitting to create this special connection to iconic races from the past.”

Customer experience
T.50s Niki Lauda buyers will receive a bespoke and personalised service, from the first expression of interest, through the specification, manufacturing and handover periods, as well as throughout the entire duration of their ownership. Each of the 25 individually specified cars will be unique, both in terms of setup and in the choice of colours and liveries.

A Trackspeed package will also be included which comprises both engineering support and all the equipment needed to run the car at a track, including a full set of pit tools and
refuelling equipment. Customers will be invited to a track day to have both chassis and aerodynamics set-upfor them to suit their driving style and experience. Owners will also benefit from a day’s
on-track tuition in the T.50s Niki Lauda to enable them to get the most from their car, and there will be a day’s tuition for the owner’s nominated technician to help them
prepare the car for track driving days. Additionally, there will be ongoing engineering support to allow owners to run their car at events and track days around the world. Gordon Murray Automotive is planning its own special events for T.50s Niki Lauda owners in future.

Gordon Murray Automotive are working closely with Stefan Ratel and his SRO organisation towards creating a GT1 sports club, which will provide exclusive track days aligned with the GT World Challenge Europe events on some of Europe’s most prestigious circuits. This is a first step with a view to creating a future supercar race

Professor Gordon Murray CBE: “It was essential to me that the T.50s Niki Lauda is easy to live with and enjoy. You will own the car, you will be completely in control of where
and when you enjoy it. My vision is that owners will take it to a circuit, check the tyre pressures, climb in, fire it up and have fun. That’s the way it should be.”

Gordon Murray Automotive

Gordon Murray Automotive creates exclusive low volume sports cars – the T.50 supercar will be the brand’s first model with customer cars built from January 2022. Its sister car, the
T.50s Niki Lauda goes into production one year later The company is a sister company to Gordon Murray Design and was first announced in November 2017 during an exhibition,
named ‘One Formula’, which celebrated Murray’s 50 years of car design.

About Professor Gordon Murray, CBE
Having spent 20 years as Technical Director to two Formula One teams from 1969-1990 Gordon Murray has a wealth of technical, design and engineering experience. At Brabham he was instrumental in two world championship wins (1981 and 1983) before three consecutive championship wins with McLaren Racing (1988, 1989 and 1990). In 1990 – after 50 Grand Prix wins – Gordon moved away from Formula One to concentrate on establishing a new company for the group, McLaren Cars Limited.

His first project there, the F1 road car, is still regarded as one of the world’s best-engineered cars. A racing version won two world sports car championships and the Le Mans 24-hour
race in 1995. McLaren Cars then completed several other successful projects culminating in the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren. Gordon left McLaren in 2005 to set up a Gordon Murray Design Ltd (in 2007), of which he is Chairman. The innovative British company is a world leader in automotive design, and reverses the current industry trend for sub-contracting by having a complete in-house capability for design, prototyping, and development.

In 2017, Gordon Murray Design celebrated the company’s 10-year anniversary along with that of the iStream® manufacturing process at a special event, named ‘One Formula’. Gordon also marked the 25th production anniversary of the McLaren F1 road car, and his 50th year of design and engineering.

In May 2019, Professor Murray was made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) by the Duke of Cambridge, Prince William, in recognition of his contributions to the motorsport and
automotive sectors over the past 50 years.

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Uno de los autos más emblemáticos de la historia de Bentley, el “Blower” de 4½ litros sobrealimentado de Sir Tim Birkin de 1929, renacerá con una nueva construcción de 12 autos a juego, cada uno hecho a mano individualmente por un equipo de especialistas de la división de carrocería y personalización de Bentley Mulliner. Juntos, los nuevos coches formarán la primera serie de continuación de coches de carreras de antes de la guerra.

Solo cuatro “Team Blowers” originales fueron construidos para carreras por Birkin, a finales de la década de 1920. Todos se realizaron en las pistas de carreras de Europa, con el coche más famoso, el Team Car No. 2 de Birkin, matrícula UU 5872, compitiendo en Le Mans y desempeñando un papel fundamental en la victoria del Bentley Speed Six de fábrica en 1930.

Ahora, utilizando una combinación de generaciones de habilidades artesanales y la última tecnología digital, el Team Blower de 1929 será el ejemplo maestro de 12 continuaciones, una por cada carrera en la que compitió la flota original de cuatro Team Blowers.


El propio Team Blower de Bentley, número de chasis HB 3403, se desmontará en sus componentes individuales, antes de catalogar cada pieza y escanear meticulosamente en 3D para crear un modelo digital completo de todo el automóvil. Usando los moldes y plantillas de herramientas originales de la década de 1920, y una variedad de herramientas manuales tradicionales junto con la última tecnología de fabricación, se crearán 12 juegos de piezas, antes de que los técnicos expertos de Bentley ensamblen los nuevos sopladores. Las 12 continuaciones serán idénticas siempre que sea posible al original – mecánica y estéticamente – con solo cambios ocultos mínimos dictados por preocupaciones de seguridad modernas.

Luego, se volverá a ensamblar el automóvil original, y el equipo de herencia aprovechará la oportunidad para completar una inspección detallada y una restauración mecánica comprensiva cuando sea necesario.

El Bentley Team Blower de 90 años todavía se usa regularmente en la carretera, incluida la finalización de la Mille Miglia de Italia, las carreras diarias en colinas en el Festival de Velocidad de Goodwood y una gira reciente por la costa de California. El Blower fue visto en la Monterey Car Week 2019 que incluyó un desfile en Laguna Seca y culminó en el Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance 2019, donde el automóvil apareció con dos de los otros tres Team Blowers.


Como continuación del Team Blower original, cada uno de los nuevos autos de la Serie Continuation contará con motores de cuatro cilindros y 16 válvulas con un cárter de aluminio con camisas de cilindro de hierro fundido y culata de cilindro de hierro fundido no desmontable. El sobrealimentador será una réplica exacta del sobrealimentador de raíces Amherst Villiers Mk IV, lo que ayudará al motor de 4398 cc a desarrollar 240 bhp a 4200 rpm. La estructura del automóvil será un marco de acero prensado, con suspensión de ballesta semielíptica con copias de los amortiguadores Bentley & Draper. Las recreaciones de los frenos de tambor mecánicos Bentley-Perrot de 40 cm (17,75 ”) y la dirección helicoidal y sectorial completan el chasis.

Mulliner necesitará aproximadamente dos años de trabajo meticuloso para completar la serie de 12 autos. Los precios estarán en la aplicación.


Ningún otro Bentley de antes de la guerra tuvo un impacto como el Bentley “Blower” sobrealimentado de 4½ litros. Si bien nunca ganó una carrera de resistencia, el Blower Bentley fue el auto de carreras más rápido del día, y contó entre sus fanáticos al autor Ian Fleming, quien más tarde decidió que su famoso agente secreto ficticio James Bond conduciría un Bentley de 4½ litros sobrealimentado. , con el coche deportivo británico rival a menudo asociado simplemente el “coche de piscina” del MI6.

Los Blower Bentleys nacieron de una filosofía ideada por Sir Tim Birkin, destacado piloto de carreras y Bentley Boy, para extraer más velocidad de los Bentley de carreras del día. Mientras que el método de WO Bentley era aumentar la capacidad del motor, de 3 litros a 4½ litros a 6½ litros, Birkin quedó impresionado por el sobrealimentador tipo Roots desarrollado por el ingeniero británico Amherst Villiers, que aumentó la potencia del 4½ de 130 CV a 240 CV en tono de carrera. Convenció al presidente de Bentley, Woolf Barnato, de que sancionara la producción de 55 Bentley sobrealimentados de 4½ litros, con cinco asignados para la competencia. El automóvil de la flota histórica de Bentley, UU 5872, es el segundo de los cuatro automóviles del “Equipo” desarrollados en los talleres de Birkin & Co en Welwyn Garden City con fondos de la rica heredera, la Excma. Dorothy Paget.

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United States: The Incredible History of the $ 10,000 and $ 100,000 

United States: The Incredible History of the $ 10,000 and $ 100,000

The largest denominations of the U.S. currency were $ 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 100,000, although today the highest is $ 100. But the 10,000 is in circulation.


At Bankrate we strive to help you make smarter financial decisions. While we adhere to strict , this post may contain references to products from our partners. Here’s an explanation for

Pictures of big bills

Most of us hope for big balances in our checking and savings accounts, but when you withdraw funds, the biggest bill you’ll see is probably $100.

Once upon a time, though, $500, $1,000, $5,000, $10,000 and $100,000 bills were in circulation. After the last printing of those denominations in 1945, the Treasury Department and the Fed discontinued them in 1969.

The use of large bills has decreased dramatically and they’ve been greater targets for counterfeits versus smaller denominations. They’re still legitimate legal tender but are limited circulation, except for the $100,000 bill, which was only ever used in fiscal channels.

These days, most of these increasingly rare bills are owned by collectors. In fact, if you happen to have a mint condition bill in a rare denomination, it could mean a big payoff. For instance, Antique Money, an organization with 20 locations around the United States that buys, sells and auctions paper currency, once paid more than $20,000 for a rare 1928 star note $1,000 bill.

Here are some rare bills you might want to keep an eye out for.

Courtesy of US Treasury Department

$500 Series 1918 Blue Seal

Produced in 1918, the front of this $500 bill bears the likeness of John Marshall, who served as the United States’ fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. The reverse side of the bill depicts Spanish conquistador Hernando De Soto discovering the Mississippi in 1541.

Courtesy of the US Treasury

$500 Series 1928 & 1934 Green Seal

These green seal notes ($500 bills with the green seal are often called Federal Reserve notes) bear the portrait of William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States. He served a full term and then only six months of his second term, before being assassinated.

Courtesy of US Treasury

$1,000 Series 1918 Blue Seal

This bill, printed in 1918, has Founding Father Alexander Hamilton’s face on the front and a soaring eagle on the back. It’s fitting that Hamilton found his way onto some U.S. currency, since, among his other accomplishments, he’s credited with founding the country’s financial system.

Courtesy of US Treasury

$1,000 Series 1928 Green Seal

Printed in 1928, this $1,000 bill features two-time United States President Grover Cleveland. He was the nation’s 22nd and 24th president, earning him the distinction of being the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms.

Courtesy of US Treasury

$5,000 Series 1918 Green Seal

This 1918-printed $5,000 bill bears the likeness of Founding Father James Madison (often christened the “Father of the Constitution”), who went on to serve as the fourth President of the United States. The back of the bill shows then-General George Washington resigning his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army on December 23, 1783.

Courtesy of US Treasury

$10,000 Series 1918 Green Seal

Just as this $10,000 bill, produced in 1918, is rare, the likeness on the front might be unfamiliar. It shows Salmon P. Chase, who served as President Lincoln’s Secretary of the Treasury from 1861 to 1864. The back of the bill shows the embarkation of the Pilgrims, as they sailed for freedom in North America.

Courtesy of US Treasury

$10,000 Series 1928, 1934, 1934A & 1934B Green Seal

Like the previous $10,000 bill, these bills produced in 1928 and 1934 also bear the likeness of Salmon P. Chase on the front. However, the back of the bill simply says, “The United States of America – Ten Thousand Dollars – 10,000.”

Courtesy of US Treasury

$100,000 Series 1934 Gold Certificate

Though it might be nice to have a bill of this high denomination, the Bureau of Engraving & Printing, a division of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, states, “The $100,000 Gold Certificate was used only for official transactions between Federal Reserve Banks and was not circulated among the general public. This note cannot be legally held by currency note collectors.” The front has a portrait of Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States.


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Nuevo híbrido Ghibli: el primer vehículo electrificado en la historia de Maserati

  • El primer vehículo híbrido en la historia de Maserati
  • Desarrollado por el Laboratorio de Innovación Maserati de Módena
  • El vehículo será producido en la planta Avvocato Giovanni Agnelli (AGAP) en Grugliasco (Turín)

Nuevo híbrido Ghibli: el primer vehículo electrificado en la historia de Maserati

Módena, 16 de julio de 2020: la chispa de la electrificación enciende el futuro de Maserati: con el nuevo Ghibli Hybrid, la marca Trident ingresa al mundo de la electrificación.

El nuevo Ghibli Hybrid representa uno de los proyectos más ambiciosos para Maserati, que después del anuncio del nuevo motor para el superdeportivo MC20 ahora establece el sello en otro paso adelante hacia la nueva Era de la marca.

La elección de introducir la tecnología híbrida en el sedán Ghibli no es una coincidencia: este modelo, con más de 100,000 unidades producidas desde su lanzamiento en 2013, encarna perfectamente el ADN del fabricante con sede en Módena.

De hecho, el desafío que enfrentó Maserati fue ingresar al mundo de la electrificación sin alterar la filosofía y los valores centrales de la marca. ¿El resultado? La creación del mejor híbrido posible. Además, Ghibli Hybrid conservará el sonido inconfundible que siempre ha distinguido a todos los Maserati.

La llegada del nuevo híbrido Ghibli amplía así la gama Maserati, que ahora es aún más competitiva y responde a las demandas del mercado.


El Ghibli Hybrid es inmediatamente reconocible, gracias en parte al nuevo diseño tanto del exterior como del interior. El denominador común del rediseño, desarrollado por el Centro Stile Maserati, es el color azul, elegido para identificar todos los automóviles con tecnología híbrida y el nuevo mundo que representan.

En el exterior, el color azul caracteriza los tres conductos de aire laterales icónicos, las pinzas de freno y el rayo en el óvalo que encierra el Trident en el pilar trasero. El mismo color azul reaparece dentro del automóvil, en particular en las costuras bordadas de los asientos. El nuevo Ghibli Hybrid también presenta nuevos contenidos estilísticos, a partir de la nueva parrilla frontal, con barras rediseñadas para representar un diapasón, un dispositivo musical que emite un sonido de extrema pureza y que también evoca el símbolo Trident. Hay cambios significativos en la parte trasera del automóvil, donde los grupos de luces se han rediseñado por completo, con un perfil tipo boomerang inspirado en el 3200 GT y el concept car Alfieri.

Híbrido leve

En perfecta armonía con su ADN, Maserati ha elegido una solución híbrida centrada principalmente en mejorar el rendimiento, al tiempo que reduce el consumo de combustible y reduce las emisiones.

La tecnología híbrida explota la energía cinética que el automóvil acumula cuando está en movimiento, recuperándola y transformándola en electricidad durante la desaceleración y el frenado, y almacenándola en una batería.

El innovador tren motriz, resultado del trabajo de desarrollo de ingeniería en profundidad por parte de los técnicos e ingenieros del Laboratorio de Innovación Maserati en Módena, combina un motor de combustión interna (4 cilindros, turbo, desplazamiento de 2.0 l) con un alternador de 48 voltios y un adicional Sobrealimentador eléctrico (e-Booster), soportado por una batería. Esta solución es única en su segmento, y es la primera en una nueva generación de trenes motrices, con el equilibrio perfecto entre rendimiento, eficiencia y placer de conducción.

La batería está montada en la parte trasera del automóvil, con beneficios en términos de distribución de peso mejorada.

Esta versión pesa unos 80 kg menos que el Diesel.

Gracias a la potencia máxima de 330 hp y al par de 450 Nm entregados a solo 1.500 rpm, los datos de rendimiento del nuevo Ghibli Hybrid son muy impresionantes: velocidad máxima de 255 km / hy aceleración de 0 a 100 km / h en 5,7 segundos.

Los ocupantes híbridos de Ghibli aún se deleitarán con el sonido inconfundible que caracteriza a todos los modelos Maserati, gracias al escape optimizado, que incluye resonadores especialmente diseñados.

Ghibli Hybrid también marca el debut del nuevo programa Maserati Connect, que permite una conexión constante con el automóvil: el intercambio de información continúa cuando está en movimiento, para mejorar los servicios ofrecidos al conductor. Además de actualizar los paquetes de software, el sistema realiza verificaciones en el automóvil y monitorea los servicios de Seguridad y Seguridad en emergencias.

El sistema multimedia Maserati Intelligent Assistant es de última generación, basado en entradas digitales de Android Automotive, un software que ofrece una experiencia de usuario innovadora totalmente personalizable según las preferencias personales del conductor. La pantalla HD del sistema multimedia, con nuevos gráficos, más fácil de usar y sin sonido envolvente, aumenta su tamaño de 8 “4 a 10” 1. También se presenta un nuevo panel de instrumentos con dispositivos digitales y nuevos gráficos.

Electrificación al estilo Maserati
El nuevo Ghibli Hybrid representa el primer paso en un plan que conducirá a la electrificación de todos los nuevos modelos Maserati. Los primeros autos totalmente eléctricos de la marca serán los nuevos GranTurismo y GranCabrio, programados para 2021.

Maserati S.p.A.
Maserati produce una gama completa de autos únicos con una personalidad increíble, inmediatamente reconocible en cualquier lugar. Con su estilo, tecnología y carácter innatamente exclusivo, deleitan los gustos más exigentes y exigentes y siempre han sido un referente de la industria automotriz. Los embajadores de este patrimonio son el buque insignia de Quattroporte, el sedán deportivo Ghibli y el Levante, el primer SUV de Maserati. Una gama completa, con motores de gasolina y diésel, tracción trasera y tracción total, los mejores materiales y una ingeniería excepcional. Una tradición de autos exitosos, cada uno de ellos redefiniendo lo que hace un auto deportivo italiano en términos de diseño, rendimiento, confort, elegancia y seguridad.

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La historia de Hennessy: nacido en Irlanda, criado en Francia desde 1765

Hennessy es uno de los fabricantes de coñac más respetados y populares del mundo. Si eres fanático del coñac, hay muchas posibilidades de que hayas probado una de las expresiones de Hennessy a lo largo de los años. Pero, ¿qué sabes sobre la historia de esta marca icónica? ¿Alguna vez pensaste que su nombre suena mucho más irlandés que francés? Bueno, hay una razón para eso.

Durante más de dos siglos, Hennessy ha escrito nuevos capítulos en la historia del coñac. Hoy, la Cámara es el líder del mercado sin igual y una de las principales marcas de bebidas espirituosas de alta gama del mundo.

Hennessy – 250 años de historia


Fundada en 1765, la Casa de Hennessy se originó en la visión de un hombre, Richard Hennessy. “Durante más de dos siglos, ocho generaciones de la familia Hennessy y siete generaciones de la familia Fillioux han trabajado juntas para garantizar la calidad y la consistencia de nuestros Cognacs”, dice Yann Fillioux, 7th Generation Hennessy Master Blender.



La historia de la Casa de Hennessy comenzó con la visión de un hombre. Un oficial irlandés al servicio del rey de Francia, Richard Hennessy previó el extraordinario potencial comercial internacional de la eaux-de-vie de Cognac. En 1765, estableció su propio negocio y fundó una Cámara que desde entonces ha tenido un éxito inigualable e inagotable. Ese éxito es el resultado de una búsqueda constante de excelencia en la creación de coñacs excepcionales, junto con una ambiciosa estrategia de desarrollo empresarial.

Richard Hennessy. © Jas Hennessy & Co / The Makers Entertainment.

Richard Hennessy.
© Jas Hennessy & Co / The Makers Entertainment.

A fines del siglo XVIII, Hennessy comenzó a crecer en los cuatro rincones del mundo, comenzando por los Estados Unidos. A principios del siglo XIX, la casa se centró en Australia y el sudeste asiático. Los mercados sudamericanos, japoneses y chinos fueron conquistados a su vez.

In 1860, a quarter of cognac exports bore one name: Hennessy.

En el siglo XX, se continuó con el trabajo iniciado por el fundador de la Cámara. En 1967 se enviaron un millón de cajas, y veinte años después esa cifra era de dos millones. Con más de cinco millones y medio de cajas en 2013, Hennessy es ahora la mejor marca francesa de vinos y licores por valor en el mundo. Además del fabuloso éxito comercial de una marca presente en todos los continentes y en más de 130 países, Hennessy cognac es embajador del art de vivre francés en todo el mundo.

Creation date: 1765
CEO: Bernard Peillon
Head office: 1, rue de la Richonne, 16100 Cognac – France
Website: www.hennessy.com

Photo: © Jas Hennessy & Co